The selection of the type of heating is caused by the worldwide pressure aimed at the reduction in the energies consumption, predominantly related to direct heating of ambient spaces, which in the long run changes the requirements for the thermal-insulating properties in the structural design of buildings. Related fees for supplied heat, heating costs as well as the financial burden related to the hot utility water preparation (TUV) do constitute a significant part of all the operating costs, overheads, closely appertaining to the living as such. Not rarely it is more than a third, sometimes even a half of all the operating costs. These collectibles demand on the selected system for the heating and hot utility water preparation. We differentiate between the two fundamental principles of heating:
CONVENTIONAL PRINCIPLE OF HEATING
With this approach, the ambient air in the room is heated by means of a direct interaction with a heating element, which by means of thermal flows transfers the heat. Conventional heating is based on a significant circulation of air within the room. With regard to the source of heat, it is where the highest possible heat is concentrated, whereas in the other parts of the room the air is significantly colder.
Figure Description: Balanced climate within the interior
The conventional systems of heating include: radiator panels / hot water, electric, hot air heating, hot-air blowers, hot air – fire places, solid fuel stoves, recuperation-heat-entrapment units, recuperative heat exchangers, heat recuperation systems, heat recuperation furnaces, waste heat recuperation, passive heat recuperation unit.
THERMAL RADIATION APPROACHES TO HEATING, RADIANT HEATING SYSTEMS
With the radiant heating principles of operation, the thermal radiation warms the ambient air (it penetrates the air freely) whereas the heat exchange happens predominantly by means of thermal radiation, where the flow of energy following its impact onto the external objects (walls, floor, furniture) is partially radiated back (circa 15 per cent), but the majority of the energy produced (circa 85 per cent) is entrapped by the objects placed in the vicinity, where thermal radiation is entrapped. Here the transfer of the radiant energy culminates being converted to thermal energy – the ambient objects are warmed up. Thanks to the increased temperature of objects (warming of the objects) when compared with the temperature of air, the heat is consequently transferred by means of convection, so the air is warmed up through the external objects.
Among the radiant heating systems are to be included: infrared heating elements – gas, electric, conventional solid fuel stove, low-temperature floor, wall, ceiling heating systems – hot-water, electric.
COMBINED PRINCIPLE OF HEATING
Represents a combination of a conventional and a radiant system of heating. This can be for instance a combination of hot-air heating combined with a fireplace, conventional stove, floor heating and such like.
HOT WATER HEATING
Nowadays with the civil buildings the following types of heating are used: low-temperature floor heating, radiator-panels heating, low-temperature wall and ceiling heating. Low temperature ceiling heating may during the summer periods serve as a low-temperature cooling circuit, predominantly if the source of heat has been outsourced from among the heat pumps. It is in the Slovak market where we offer as the source of heat the world-class novelty, which is the heat pump with a fully-equipped control room/operation panel/ancillaries, having an alternative of interconnecting a hot-water fireplace, solid fuels stove, boiler, as well as the system of hot utility water heating/preparation using the photovoltaics. The entire technology equipment of the control room is to cover the area of cca 1 m2 of the facility control room.
We come up with solutions, propose and design various systems of heating and that observing the needs of an investor and a type of building, so as, the heating remains as efficient as possible, be that viewed from the perspectives of used technologies or the economical principles of operation.
Systems of low-temperature heating and cooling may be divided into the following categories:
Low temperature floor heating
Low temperature wall and ceiling heating
Low-temperature floor heating
Low-temperature ceiling cooling
AC – DC ELECTRIC HEATING
Ranks among the radiant infrared light spectrum electric heating. The infrared heating by means of the very property of its radiation warms up the walls and solid objects. This accumulated heat is consequently radiated back from their surface into the outer area. It may be understood as a similar process of heating as it is with the heating utilizing the heat accumulation stove, heat accumulation fireplace. The heating system concerned is of high quality, a comfortable one and at the same time energy-efficient. As the only one has the instantaneous effect of operation, instantaneous launch. Radiant electric radiators are also considered as a convenient source of heat – or they may be panels, electric ceiling heating films and such like. Infrared panels operate on the principle of direct radiation, heating up the nearby persons, walls, objects. Equally dispersed heat enables the are to be uniformly heated and they do not case air currents within the room being heated.
By means of these appliances we may heat both the interior and exterior premises.
HEATFLOW – radiant electric films – family houses, flats, municipal buildings, civil-engineering projects
ARIEM – flats, family houses, offices, municipal buildings, civil-engineering projects, industrial usage, churches
SOLAMAGIC – flats, family houses, churches, industrial usage, both the exterior premises, as well as winter conservatories, greenhouses, balconies, terraces, patios and similar ones.
AC electric heating – 230 V, electric energy from the public Grid
DC electric heating – direct electric current, source of which is facilitated by photovoltaic panels
Advantages of electric infrared light heating:
instantaneous principle of operation (minimum warm-up phase)
apparent temperature, temperature perception by 2 – 3 degrees Celsius higher than the ambient room temperatures
minimum investment and operating costs
expressive and modern design
More information to be obtained on various heating systems is to be found in appendices to be downloaded.