Photovoltaics represents the technology generating electrical energy out of the sunshine. Electrical energy is by means of this very phenomenon generated noiselessly, without any other rotating parts and without negative impacts. Photovoltaic systems operate in a fully automated manner, without the need of personnel and a significant cost spent on the maintenance. Photovoltaic cells do not produce any harmful substances, nor the CO2 emissions. With their operation no noise is generated, they do not impact on the organisms in their vicinity, nor the living organisms or animals. Photovoltaic panels utilize the solar energy which is for free, that is why their operating costs are insignificant and above that they are extremely reliable. An indisputable advantage of the photovoltaics is the fact that the panels may be added-up, coupled, and in that way boost the overall performance capacity of the entire system – appliance. Generally speaking, it may be said that the photovoltaic panel having the power rating of 240 Wp generates on an annual basis on the territory of the Slovak republic between 240 up to 364 kWH of electrical energy.
Figure Description: PRINCIPLE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL OPERATION
Sun radiation, metal contact – mesh, cca 100 μm, semiconductor (Si) type, semiconductor (Si) type p, escape of electrons by means of light, Appliance
Water heating using the photovoltaics
For heating the water the energy of the sun is used, by means of which the photovoltaic cells generate direct electric current, which afterwards heats the water in the collection tank. The original solution to be considered is incorporating the photovoltaic panels, with which no additional losses arise, and that is why the appliance operates at a very efficient rate, while at the same time heat protection is guaranteed and safe operation of the entire system, as well.
The utilization of photovoltaic panels for hot utility water heating represents and ecological approach to the electrical energy generation, which is to its full extent consumed by the house-0owner. There are no any additional permissions, so the process of connection is without any additional investments into the ancillary equipment. Up to now, it is the most efficient and worry-free no non-sense approach to the utilization of the electrical energy generated in the photovoltaic panels.
The intensity of the sunshine is impacted upon by the weather changes and seasonal changes, that is why the sun when viewed from the terrestrial aspect represents an unstable source of energy. Hybrid heaters are able to heat water using the sunshine or the combination of the sun and a permanent source of energy (for instance gas, electricity from the public grid).
Figure Description: Figure No.: 1 – Gas or Electric boiler, Heat pump, AC Outlet 230 V, Water Heater LX ACDC/M+K, Photovoltaic panels, hot water, pre-heated water, source of cold water
To guarantee the correct operation of the photovoltaic systems, it is paramount to use monocrystalline or polycrystalline photovoltaic panels of the overall power output 250 W / 1 panel.
Indisputably a great advantage of photovoltaic panels is represented by their relatively low weight (circa 19 kg / 1 panel), which makes it possible to place them almost anywhere, where before all, the maximum direct radiation / impact of the sunshine is guaranteed. The ideal orientation remains facing the south with a possible deviation of +/- 20 degrees. The greater the discrepancy the higher the losses during the process of electricity generation in the panels. The gradient of panels in Middle Europe should be within the range of 20 – 36 degrees. The distance of cables between the panels and the water tank, collection tank, should under no circumstances be greater than 100 metres. The most widespread and commonly used photovoltaic panels measure 160 x 100 cm (1.6 m2).
Patented operations of the direct electric current (DC), being utilized by Logitex, can be used apart from water heating with the ambient space heating, which is connected to the source gained from the photovoltaic panels. The absolute world uniqueness / dominance of the Logitex system remains with the transfer of the direct electric current between the products, slaves, which are connected to the source of the single current. Meaning that in case the water in the collection tank reaches the predetermined temperature, the generated electricity is transferred into the second collection water tank or from the heating circuit into the collection tank, by means of which the all-day electricity output from the photovoltaic panels is equally dispersed, distributed. All the heating and water heating Logitex systems are interconnected and they recognize each other in an automated manner, without the need of further electronic controls or operating modules. The photovoltaic heating may be utilized with the direct electrical heating systems or with the liquid-based systems of heating.
This system may be connected with the electrical heating panels, viz. ARIEM DC.